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Zoonosis Or Iatrogenesis[edit]

The statement "Major modern diseases such as Ebola virus disease and influenza are zoonoses." is unsupported by a reference. In fact it is unclear if the sudden, large (largest in history) ebola outbreak is the effect of zoonosis or iatrogenesis. Either way, the statement should be sourced. MrSativa (talk) 01:39, 16 January 2016 (UTC) yes — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 03:51, 9 August 2016 (UTC)

Shouldn't prion be listed[edit]

Shouldn't prion be listed as a possible infectious agent? (mad cow)

I agree, prions can be classified as pathogens. CheekyMonkey 22:10, 2 Sep 2004 (UTC)

14 years later, I came here to ask the same question - but I'm no expert, and not sure of the answer. If infection happens through ingestion of dead animals, is it called infection - or contamination?
Specifically, I think prions should be added to this sentence in the lead:
Zoonoses can be caused by a range of disease pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites;-- (talk) 10:06, 13 November 2018 (UTC)


I belive there is scientific consensus that HIV is a primate lentivirus and is descended from simian immunodeficiency virus.

No, that's a matter of evolution. Zoonoses can be transmitted back and forth between any infected human or animal, not just hosts carrying mutant species-jumping strains. -- Phyzome is Tim McCormack 02:21, 2005 Mar 11 (UTC)

WTF: AIDS !?!? last I checked, HIV is contagious, not AIDS, and HIV is human specific. (SIV is the 'zoonotic' evolutionary precursor, right?)

Ummm... what about birds. My knowledge of biology is pretty limited, but shouldn't fowl be on this list, as in H5N1? Also I'm not sure enough to change it on the page, but I thought they determined that SARS spread from bats, not civet cats.

It looks to me like the definition of 'zoonosis' and the definition of 'Brucella' are in tension. The definition for 'Brucella' claims that Brucella is "A true zoonotic-disease (i.e. no human-to-human transmission has been identified),...", and yet the definition for 'zoonosis', to which a link is provided in the definition of 'Brucella', claims the far more limited thesis that a zoonotic "is a disease that can be transmitted from other animals to humans."

That seems like it needs fixing to me, but I'm not going to fix it myself. If someone agrees, just make the fix.

Just because it may be "scientific consensus" does not mean it's correct. There needs to be a new category on the ways of transmission for Zoonosis to include blood-transfusions and vaccines, particularly because of SV40 impurity within the original Poliovirus vaccine. As a result, that would include HIV due to blood-transfusions as well as cross-contamination with the experimental Hepatitis B vaccine from the same time period. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Vapur9 (talkcontribs) 02:38, 3 May 2017 (UTC)

Additions to list of zoonotic diseases / zoonoses[edit]

Should Giardia and Cryptosporidium be included in this list?

I was just Googling on the lifetimes of Galagos (bush babies), and came up with a page, since closed, that reported a number of states in the United States (Hawaii, specifically) that had recently changed regulations against keeping non-human primates as pets, citing concerns of zoonoses as significant factors in the revisions. Hepatitis A and B were mentioned as possible zoonoses. Which doesn't sound incredible to me, but I've not seen the assertion made elsewhere in the literature. IANA-medic, however. A Karley 13:42, 20 August 2006 (UTC)

Which plague?[edit]

"The plague is a zoonotic disease"

Is this supposed to refer to Bubonic plague? Can someone familiar with the subject please edit the above sentence to clarify it? Thanks. Crispy 13:41, 15 September 2006 (UTC)

I believe a reference to "the" plague is Bubonic, but correct me if I'm wrong. I changed it in the article. StvnLunsford 13:39, 21 November 2006 (UTC)

Partial List of Outbreaks of Zoonosis Associated with Fairs and Petting Zoos[edit]

I'd like to add the following section to the entry on zoonosis, but didn't want to add it before entering the talk page since I'm afraid someone might think this section (plus footnotes and references below) would be more appropriate on another page that I have yet to find. If that's the case, please make suggestions. Otherwise, I'll post this on the zoonosis page.

Thanks, Suzanne Schreck 23:15, 24 May 2007 (UTC)

Outbreaks of zoonosis have been traced to human interaction with and exposure to animals at fairs, petting zoos, and in other settings. In 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued an updated list of recommendations for preventing zoonosis transmission in public settings.[1] The CDC recommendations, which were developed in conjunction with the National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, include sections on the educational responsibilities of venue operators, managing public and animal contact, and animal care and management.

In 1988, a person became ill with Swine Influenza Virus (Swine Flu) and died after visiting the display area of the pig barn at a Wisconsin county fair. Three healthcare personnel treating the case patient also developed flu-like illness with laboratory evidence of Swine Influenza Virus infection.[2] Investigators from the CDC indicated in their final report that the Swine Flu had been transmitted directly from pig to human host.[3]

In 1994, seven cases of ‘’E. coli’’ O157:H7 infection were traced to a farm in Leicestershire, United Kingdom. An epidemiological investigation into the outbreak revealed that the strain of ‘’E. coli’’ O157:H7 isolated from nine animals on the farm was indistinguishable from the strain isolated from human samples. Investigators concluded that the most likely cause of this outbreak was direct human contact with animals.[4]

In 1995, 43 children who had visited a rural farm in Wales became ill with Cryptosporidiosis. ‘’Cryptosporidium’’ was isolated from seven of the ill children. An epidemiological investigation indicated that the source of the children’s illness was contact with calves at the farm.[5]

Also in 1995, at least thirteen children became ill with ‘’Cryptosporidiosis’’ after visiting a farm in Dublin, Ireland. In a case-control study, researchers compared the activities of the thirteen ill children, or cases, to the activities of 52 out of 55 people who had visited the farm – the controls. The study revealed that illness was significantly associated with playing in the sand in a picnic area beside a stream where animals had access.[6]

In 1997, an ‘’E. coli’’ O157:H7 outbreak was identified among one child who lived on an open farm and two children who visited the farm during school parties. Two of the three children developed hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Isolates collected from the three children and from samples taken at the farm were indistinguishable, demonstrating evidence of the link between the farm and the children’s illness.[7]

In 1999, what is believed to be the largest outbreak of waterborne ‘’E. coli’’ O157:H7 illness in United States history occurred at the Washington County, New York fair. The New York State Department of Health identified 781 individuals who were suspected of being infected with either ‘’E. coli’’ O157:H7 or ‘’Campylobacter jejuni’’. An investigation into the outbreak revealed that consumption of beverages purchased from vendors supplied with water drawn from an unchlorinated fairgrounds well was associated with illness. In all, 127 outbreak victims were confirmed ill with ‘’E. coli’’ O157:H7 infections; 71 were hospitalized, 14 developed HUS, and two died.[8]

In 2000, 51 people became ill with confirmed or suspected ‘’E. coli’’ O157:H7 infections after visiting a dairy farm in Pennsylvania. Eight children developed HUS. A case-control study among visitors to the dairy was conducted jointly by the CDC, Pennsylvania Department of Health, and the Montgomery County Health Department. The study’s authors concluded that ‘’E. coli’’ was transmitted to visitors as a result of contamination on animal hides and in the environment.[9]

Also in 2000, 43 visitors to the Medina County fair in Ohio were confirmed ill with ‘’E. coli’’ O157:H7 infections. An investigation into the outbreak suggested that the water system from which food vendors were supplied was the source of the ‘’E. coli’’ outbreak. Several months later, five children became ill with ‘’E. coli’’ infections after attending a “Carnival of Horrors” event held at the Medina County fairgrounds. PFGE analysis of the strains of ‘’E. coli’’ isolated from members of both outbreaks revealed an indistinguishable pattern, and investigators from the Medina County Health Department and the CDC determined that the Medina County Fairgrounds water distribution system was the source of both ‘’E. coli’’ outbreaks.[10]

In 2001, an ‘’E. coli’’ O157:H7 outbreak was traced to exposure in the Cow Palace at the Lorain County Fair in Ohio. CDC investigators identified 23 cases of ‘’E. coli’’ infection associated with attendance at the Lorain County Fair, with additional secondary cases likely. Two people developed HUS. An environmental and site investigation revealed ‘’E. coli’’ contamination on doorways, rails, bleachers, and sawdust. Investigators concluded that the Lorain County Fair was the source of the outbreak.[11]

Wyandot County, Ohio, also reported an ‘’E. coli’’ O157:H7 outbreak in 2001. Ninety-two ‘’E. coli’’ infections were reported to the Wyandot County Health Department and the CDC, with 27 cases confirmed using laboratory analysis. Two cases developed HUS. Contact with infected cattle was believed to be the source of the outbreak; however, a specific cause was never identified.[11]

In 2002, seven people became ill with ‘’E. coli’’ O157:H7 infections after visiting a large agricultural fair in Ontario, Canada. Outbreak investigators conducted a case-control study, which indicated that goats and sheep from a petting zoo were the source of the ‘’E. coli’’ among fair visitors. Other indications were that the fencing and environment surrounding the petting zoo could have been a source of transmission.[12]

What is believed to be the largest ‘’E. coli’’ O157:H7 outbreak in Oregon State history occurred among attendees at the Lane County Fair in 2002.[13] An Oregon Department of Human Services – Health Services investigation led to the belief that the ‘’E. coli’’ outbreak originated from exposure in the sheep and goat barn. In all, 79 people were confirmed ill with ‘’E. coli’’ infections as part of the outbreak; 22 were hospitalized, and 12 suffered HUS.[14]

In 2003, fair visitors and animal exhibitors at the Fort Bend County Fair in Texas became ill with ‘’E. coli’’ O157:H7 infections. An outbreak investigation led to the determination that 25 people had become ill with ‘’E. coli’’ infections after attending the Fort Bend County Fair; seven people were laboratory-confirmed with ‘’E. coli’’, and 5 developed HUS or TTP (Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura). Investigators isolated a strain of ‘’E. coli’’ indistinguishable from the outbreak strain from four animal husbandry sites, and found high levels of ‘’E. coli’’ contamination in both rodeo and animal exhibit areas.[15]

In 2004, a large ‘’E. coli’’ O157:H7 outbreak occurred among visitors at the 2004 North Carolina State Fair. During its investigation into the outbreak, the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services (NCDHHS) received over 180 reports of illness, and documented 33 culture-confirmed cases of ‘’E. coli’’ O157:H7 associated with attendance at the fair, with 15 children developing HUS. In its final investigation report, NCDHHS concluded that the North Carolina State Fair ‘’E. coli’’ outbreak had originated at a petting zoo exhibit. The conclusion was supported by a case-control study, environmental sampling, and laboratory analysis of samples collected from the fair and members of the outbreak.[16]

In 2005, a petting zoo that exhibited at two Florida fairs and a festival was traced as the source of an ‘’E. coli’’ O157:H7 outbreak. Sixty-three people who had visited either the Florida State Fair, the Central Florida Fair, or the Florida Strawberry Festival reported illness to investigators for the Florida Department of Health, including 20 who were culture-confirmed and 7 with HUS. A case-control study revealed that illness was associated with exposure to a petting zoo exhibit present at all three events.[17]


  1. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005). "Compendium of Measures To Prevent Disease Associated with Animals in Public Settings, 2005: National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc. (NASPHV)" (PDF). MMWR. 54 (No. RR-4): inclusive page numbers. |issue= has extra text (help)
  2. ^ Wells; et al. (1991). "Swine influenza virus infections. Transmission from ill pigs to humans at a Wisconsin agricultural fair and subsequent probable person-to-person transmission". JAMA. 265 (4): 481. Explicit use of et al. in: |author= (help)
  3. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Human infection with swine influenza virus – Wisconsin". MMWR. 37 (43): 661–3.
  4. ^ Shukla; et al. "Escherichia coli O157 infection associated with a farm visitor center". Communicable Disease Report. 5 (6): R86–R90. Explicit use of et al. in: |author= (help)
  5. ^ Evans, M. R. and D. Gardner (1996). "Cryptosporidiosis Outbreak Associated with an Educational Farm Holiday". Commun Dis Rep CDR Rev. 29. 6 (4): R67. ISSN: 1350-9349.
  6. ^ Sayers; et al. (1996). "Cryptosporidiosis in children who visited an open farm". Commun Dis Rep CDR Rev. 13. 6 (10): R140-4. Explicit use of et al. in: |author= (help)
  7. ^ Milne; et al. (1999). "Escherichia coli O157 incident associated with a farm open to members of the public". Communicable Disease and Public Health: 22–26. Text "volume 2" ignored (help); Explicit use of et al. in: |author= (help)
  8. ^ New York State Department of Health and A.C. Novello (2000). "The Washington County Fair outbreak report". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  9. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2001). "Outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections among children associated with farm visits—Pennsylvania and Washington 2000". MMWR. 50 (15): 293–297.
  10. ^ Rickelman-Apisa, J.M. (2001-9-28). "Summary of E. coliO157:H7 Outbreak Associated with the Medina County Fairgrounds 2000 Fair and 2000 Carnival of Horrors". Medina County Health Department. Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Check date values in: |date= (help)
  11. ^ a b Varma, J.K. (2002-02-15). "Trip report epi-aid # 2001-84: Outbreaks of E. coli O157:H7 infections associated with Lorain and Wyandot County fairs, Ohio, September-October 2002 From Jay K. Varma, EIS officer, Food borne and Diarrheal Diseases branch to Forrest Smith, State Epidemiologist, Ohio department of Health". Public Health Service. Department of Health and Human Services. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  12. ^ Warshawsky; et al. "Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 related to animal contact at a petting zoo". Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases. 13 (3): 175–181. Explicit use of et al. in: |author= (help)
  13. ^ Oregon Department of Human Services (2002-09-13 url= "Hemorrhagic Escherichiosis from a County Fair". CD Summary (pdf) |format= requires |url= (help). 51 (19). Missing pipe in: |date= (help); Check date values in: |accessdate= and |date= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  14. ^ Oregon Department of Human Services, Health Services (2005). "2005 Ways and Means Presentation – Phase 1" (pdf). Oregon Department of Human Services. Retrieved 2007-5-22. Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  15. ^ Durso, L.M.; et al. (2005). "Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 Infections Among Livestock Exhibitors and Visitors at a Texas County Fair". Vector-Borne And Zoonotic Diseases. 5: 193–201. Explicit use of et al. in: |author= (help)
  16. ^ Goode, B. (2005-06-29). "Outbreak of Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) infections associated with a petting zoo at the North Carolina State Fair – Raleigh, North Carolina, November 2004 Final Report". North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  17. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005). "Outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Associated with Petting Zoos — North Carolina, Florida, and Arizona, 2004 and 2005". MMWR. 54 issue= 50: 1279. Missing pipe in: |volume= (help)

External Links[edit]

This edit[edit]

I reverted this edit because such a large deletion should be discussed (to determine consensus) and be backed by a reliable source. The language added in that edit was not in any way compelling. --Scray (talk) 18:01, 21 February 2009 (UTC)

Lingusitic comment[edit]

I don't know if it's worth mentioning in the article, but, in any case, I'd like to make the same comment I've made in another article. The widely used term zoonosis makes no sense either in Greek or Neolatin; if the word were to be correct Greek it should have been either of the three following neologisms: ζῳονόσος - zoonosos, ζῳονοσία - zoonosia (confer ἀ-νοσία "immunity to ailment"; adjective: zoonosic), or zoonosesis (from νόση-σις "process of getting sick" from νοσέ). So, zoonose is much more correct of a term (since it could be seen as an anglicization of the Neolatin zoonosos); it seems that some researcher just had the idea to stick that unjustified -is to the word in order to make it seem more scientific/exotic. --Omnipaedista (talk) 21:06, 27 August 2009 (UTC)

Zoonotic redirect[edit]

"Zoonotic" redirects here, which is a problem because there's an article called Zoonotic (Law & Order: Criminal Intent episode) that is then bypassed. I think the redirect should be removed and a line added to the top of the Criminal Intent episode article stating that "For Zoonotic, see Zoonosis", or something. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talkcontribs) 15:27, 17 September 2009

I've added a hatnote for those who find this confusing. --Scray (talk) 01:56, 18 September 2009 (UTC)

Definition contradicts partial list of carriers[edit]

I notice in the definition it is stated that "The simplest definition of a zoonosis is a disease that can be transmitted from other vertebrate animals to humans." However, in the partial list of carriers some Invertebrates are listed. The Snail and Arthropods; Assassin bugs, Fleas, Lice, Mosquitoes and Ticks are listed. The article could use a broader taxonomic term than Vertebrate to deal with this contradiction. The best I can come up with is Bilaterian animals. —Preceding unsigned comment added by Diaflux (talkcontribs) 20:49, 21 February 2010 (UTC)

The problem here is not the definition, but uninformed editing of the list of carriers. In particular, many (all?) of the non-vertebrates you noticed are vectors, not the usual (animal) host. For example, Chagas disease (American Trypanosomiasis) is transmitted by the assassin bug but the hosts are mammals. Thus, the assassin bug should not be listed as a carrier, but as a vector. To make this distinction more obvious, and because it would be useful, it might be a good idea to add a list of vectors. -- Scray (talk) 21:26, 21 February 2010 (UTC)

list of diseases that are "not zoonotic"[edit]

The list says that malaria, schistosomiasis, river blindness, and are not zoonotic because the parasites involved depend on a human host to complete their life cycle, but this is incorrect. All three can involve parasites which matured successfully in non human hosts (eg, other primates for malaria, water buffalo for schistosomiasis, dogs for river blindness). If a zoonosis is "any infectious disease that can be transmitted between species (in some instances, by a vector) from animals to humans or from humans to animals" then these diseases are zoonotic, regardless of whether or not their non human hosts are epidemiologically significant. RobertBlahBlah (talk) 20:53, 14 August 2012 (UTC)

The issue is whether there are strains of these types of pathogen that are specific to humanss. You are correct Robert that these infections could be zoonotic, for instance Schistosoma japonicum in Asia can infect cattle and humans and is therefore a more complex system when trying to design effective control. But there are versions of these pathogens that are not, such as Schistosoma mansoni in Africa that infect only humans. I have changed schisto in this bit of the article to African schistosomiasis. Perhaps other people can change malaria and river blindness to the human-specific species/strains? Emble64 (talk) 19:09, 8 November 2012 (UTC)

Suggestions for improvement[edit]

I don't see how this article warrants a B grade when it is massively skeletal and unbalanced. First: There are way too many lists in this article that don't offer any context. For instance fish and whales are listed as vectors, but of what? Clicking on the whale link doesn't tell me anything about Zoonotic diseases. Partial lists of this and that simply invite more unsourced, unhelpful additions. See WP:EMBED and WP:IINFO. A vast improvement would simply be a a table of Vectors and their respective diseases, combining two subheadings into one.

Agree.. Will try to do this.Manum56 (talk) 09:59, 18 December 2014 (UTC)

Second: the "Partial list of outbreaks of zoonosis associated with fairs and petting zoos", while well referenced, gives undue coverage relative to Zoonosis as a whole, and may invite original research and synthesis by being so specific. Even if the rest of the article was as developed as this section, it should probably be split into a separate article or list. See MOS:LIST --Animalparty-- (talk) 00:38, 4 February 2014 (UTC)

I suggest we remove this list altogether.Manum56 (talk) 09:59, 18 December 2014 (UTC)

Suggest removal of sections[edit]

I suggest we remove the section "Zoonosis research centers". This information is more relevant in a directory. Manum56 (talk) 09:52, 18 December 2014 (UTC)

We should have a section on research though. Have changed the name to that. Should be expanded and may discuss the major centers that study zoonosis. Doc James (talk · contribs · email) 18:18, 18 December 2014 (UTC)

List of vectors are not accurate[edit]

The list of vectors have only ticks and mites, which are actually vectors. The rest are the zoonotic hosts among animals. Manum56 (talk) 07:38, 21 December 2014 (UTC)

"A Zoonose"?[edit]

How should the singular be handled? "Zoonose"? For instance, is "Rabies is a zoonose" correct? — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 10:19, 28 August 2015 (UTC)

Zika Virus[edit]

Request to add Zika Virus (as alleged to spread from monkeys within the Zika Forest of Uganda) into present chart Twillisjr (talk) 16:55, 28 January 2016 (UTC)

Reverse Zoonosis[edit]

For some reason reverse zoonosis redirects here yet theres no information on the subject on this page. Reverse zoonosis is a documented subject and means diseases that humans transmit to other animals. This has been seen with pets and there was a case of a human transmitting tuberculosis to an elephant which later died. I think it would be good to add stuff on this to the article as it's not just humans that catch diseases from other animals. We too can be natural reservoirs for diseases that infect other animals.

This is addressed in the introduction now (third paragraph). "When humans infect animals, it is called reverse zoonosis or anthroponosis.[1]" I've also checked and "reverse zoonosis" redirects to the page Anthroponotic disease. Mthoma15 (talk) 02:40, 19 June 2019 (UTC)

thank you, good thinking. i saw a dermatologist who informed me zoonotic diseases are "not a thing" my dogs and i thinks shes an idiot Julzopp (talk) 16:18, 23 July 2019 (UTC)

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Calling it animal husbandry instead of "non-human animal husbandry"[edit]

While non-human animal husbandry is arguably a more precise term for what is generally called animal husbandry, I think actual cases of human husbandry-- raising captive humans for their meat, milk, hair, etc.-- are too infrequent to justify the unfamiliar term. By contrast, the practice of raising captive humans (or trapping them in the wild) for their labor is widespread, but there is already a word for it: slavery. See also partus sequitur ventrem.CharlesHBennett (talk) 00:01, 24 March 2020 (UTC)

The article uses non-human animal way too much. Animals are implied to be non-human.--Pestilence Unchained (talk) 09:15, 8 May 2020 (UTC)


I think it would be useful in the table to classify pathogens in broad categories like vira, bacteria or prions, perhaps in a separate column. Thoughts?-- (talk) 09:09, 19 September 2020 (UTC)

  1. ^ Messenger AM, Barnes AN, Gray GC (2014). "Reverse zoonotic disease transmission (zooanthroponosis): a systematic review of seldom-documented human biological threats to animals". PLoS ONE. 9 (2): e89055. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089055. PMC 3938448. PMID 24586500. Retrieved 18 December 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)