# Susceptance

In electrical engineering, susceptance (B) is the imaginary part of admittance, where the real part is conductance. The reciprocal of admittance is impedance, where the imaginary part is reactance and the real part is resistance. In SI units, susceptance is measured in siemens.

## Origin

The term was coined by Charles Proteus Steinmetz in a May 1894 paper.[1] In some sources Oliver Heaviside is given credit for coining the term,[2] or with introducing the concept under the name permittance.[3] This claim is mistaken according to Steinmetz's biographer, Ronald R. Kline.[4] The term susceptance does not appear anywhere in Heaviside's collected works, and he used the term permittance to mean capacitance, not susceptance.[5]

## Formula

The general equation defining admittance is given by

${\displaystyle Y=G+jB\,}$

where,

Y is the complex admittance, measured in siemens.
G is the real-valued conductance, measured in siemens.
j is the imaginary unit (i.e. j² = −1), and
B is the real-valued susceptance, measured in siemens.

The admittance (Y) is the reciprocal of the impedance (Z), if the impedance is not zero:

${\displaystyle Y={\frac {1}{Z}}={\frac {1}{R+jX}}=\left({\frac {R}{\;R^{2}+X^{2}}}\right)+j\left({\frac {-X\;\;}{\;R^{2}+X^{2}}}\right)\,}$

and

${\displaystyle B=\operatorname {Im} (Y)={\frac {-X\;}{\;R^{2}+X^{2}}}={\frac {-X~\;}{~\;\left|Z\right|^{2}}}}$

where

${\displaystyle Z=R+jX\,}$
Z is the complex impedance, measured in ohms
R is the real-valued resistance, measured in ohms
X is the real-valued reactance, measured in ohms.

The susceptance ${\displaystyle B}$ is the imaginary part of the admittance ${\displaystyle Y}$.

The magnitude of admittance is given by:

${\displaystyle \left|Y\right|={\sqrt {G^{2}+B^{2}\;}}\,}$

And similar formulas transform admittance into impedance, hence susceptance (B) into reactance (X):

${\displaystyle Z={\frac {1}{Y}}={\frac {1}{G+jB}}=\left({\frac {G}{\;G^{2}+B^{2}}}\right)+j\left({\frac {-B\;\;}{\;G^{2}+B^{2}}}\right)\,}$

hence

${\displaystyle X=\operatorname {Im} (Z)={\frac {-B\;}{\;G^{2}+B^{2}}}={\frac {-B~\;}{~\;\left|Y\right|^{2}}}}$.

The reactance and susceptance are only reciprocals in the absence of either resistance or conductance (only if either R = 0 or G = 0, either of which implies the other, if Z ≠ 0 or equivalently Y ≠ 0).

## Relation to capacitance

In electronic and semiconductor devices, transient or frequency-dependent current between terminals contains both conduction and displacement components. Conduction current is related to moving charge carriers (electrons, holes, ions, etc.), while displacement current is caused by time-varying electric field. Carrier transport is affected by electric field and by a number of physical phenomena, such as carrier drift and diffusion, trapping, injection, contact-related effects, and impact ionization. As a result, device admittance is frequency-dependent, and the simple electrostatic formula for capacitance, ${\displaystyle C={\frac {q}{V}},}$ is not applicable. A more general definition of capacitance, encompassing electrostatic formula, is:[6]

${\displaystyle C={\frac {\operatorname {Im} (Y)}{\omega }}\,,}$

where ${\displaystyle Y}$ is the device admittance, evaluated at the angular frequency in question, and ${\displaystyle \omega }$ is the angular frequency. It is common for electrical components to have slightly reduced capacitances at extreme frequencies, due to slight inductance of conductors used to make capacitors (not just the leads), and permittivity changes in insulating materials with frequency: C is very nearly, but not quite a constant.

## Relationship to reactance

Reactance is defined as the imaginary part of electrical impedance, and is analogous but not generally equal to the reciprocal of the susceptance.

However, for purely-reactive impedances (which are purely-susceptive admittances), the susceptance is equal to negative the inverse of the reactance.

In mathematical notation:

${\displaystyle G=0\iff R=0\iff B=-{\frac {1}{X}}}$

The negation is not present in the relationship between electrical resistance and the analogue of conductance G, which equals ${\displaystyle \operatorname {Re} (Y)}$.

${\displaystyle B=0\iff X=0\iff G={\frac {1}{R}}}$

If the imaginary unit is included, we get

${\displaystyle jB={\frac {1}{jX}}~,}$

for the resistance-free case since,

${\displaystyle {1 \over j}=-j\ .}$

## Applications

High susceptance materials are used in susceptors built into microwavable food packaging for their ability to convert microwave radiation into heat.[7]

## References

1. ^ C.P. Steinmetz, "On the law of hysteresis (part III), and the theory of ferric inductances", Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, vol. 11, pp. 570–616, 1894.
2. ^ For example:
• Graydon Wetzer, "Wayfinding re/dicto", pp. 295–324 in, Susan Flynn, Antonia Mackay, Surveillance, Architecture and Control: Discourses on Spatial Culture, 2019 ISBN 303000371X.

.

3. ^ For example:
• Sverre Grimnes, Orjan G. Martinsen, Bioimpedance and Bioelectricity Basics, p. 499, Academic Press, 2014 ISBN 0124115330.

4. ^ Ronald R. Kline, Steinmetz: Engineer and Socialist, p. 88, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992 ISBN 0801842980.
5. ^ Ido Yavetz, From Obscurity to Enigma: The Work of Oliver Heaviside, 1872–1889, Springer, 2011 ISBN 3034801777.
6. ^ Laux, S.E. (Oct 1985). "Techniques for small-signal analysis of semiconductor devices". IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems. 4 (4): 472–481. doi:10.1109/TCAD.1985.1270145. S2CID 13058472.
7. ^ Labuza, T.; Meister, J. (1992). "An alternate method for measuring the heating potential of microwave susceptor films" (PDF). Journal of International Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy. 27 (4): 205–208. doi:10.1080/08327823.1992.11688192. Retrieved 23 Sep 2011.